Replacements of small- by large-ranged species scale up to diversity loss in Europe’s temperate forest biome

Ingmar R. Staude, Donald M. Waller, Markus Bernhardt-Römermann, Anne D. Bjorkman, Jörg Brunet, Pieter De Frenne, Radim Hédl, Ute Jandt, Jonathan Lenoir, František Máliš, Kris Verheyen, Monika Wulf, Henrique M. Pereira, Pieter Vangansbeke, Adrienne Ortmann-Ajkai, Remigiusz Pielech, Imre Berki, Markéta Chudomelová, Guillaume Decocq, Thomas DirnböckTomasz Durak, Thilo Heinken, Bogdan Jaroszewicz, Martin Kopecký, Martin Macek, Marek Malicki, Tobias Naaf, Thomas A. Nagel, Petr Petřík, Kamila Reczyńska, Fride Høistad Schei, Wolfgang Schmidt, Tibor Standovár, Krzysztof Świerkosz, Balázs Teleki, Hans Van Calster, Ondřej Vild, Lander Baeten

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Abstract

Biodiversity time series reveal global losses and accelerated redistributions of species, but no net loss in local species richness. To better understand how these patterns are linked, we quantify how individual species trajectories scale up to diversity changes using data from 68 vegetation resurvey studies of seminatural forests in Europe. Herb-layer species with small geographic ranges are being replaced by more widely distributed species, and our results suggest that this is due less to species abundances than to species nitrogen niches. Nitrogen deposition accelerates the extinctions of small-ranged, nitrogen-efficient plants and colonization by broadly distributed, nitrogen-demanding plants (including non-natives). Despite no net change in species richness at the spatial scale of a study site, the losses of small-ranged species reduce biome-scale (gamma) diversity. These results provide one mechanism to explain the directional replacement of small-ranged species within sites and thus explain patterns of biodiversity change across spatial scales.
Original languageEnglish
JournalNature Ecology and Evolution
ISSN2397-334X
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 13-Apr-2020

Thematic List 2020

  • Forest
  • Soil & air

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