Research output

Microclimate moderates plant responses to macroclimate warming

Research output: Contribution to journalA1: Web of Science-article


  • Pieter De Frenne
  • Francisco Rodriguez-Sanchez
  • David Anthony Coomes
  • Lander Baeten
  • Gorik Verstraeten
  • Mark Vellend
  • Markus Bernhardt-Roemermann
  • Carissa D. Brown
  • Jorg Brunet
  • Johnny Cornelis
  • Guillaume M. Decocq
  • Hartmut Dierschke
  • Ove Eriksson
  • Frank S. Gilliam
  • Radim Hedl
  • Thilo Heinken
  • Martin Hermy
  • Patrick Hommel
  • Michael A. Jenkins
  • Daniel L. Kelly
  • Keith J. Kirby
  • Fraser J. G. Mitchell
  • Tobias Naaf
  • Miles Newman
  • George Peterken
  • Petr Petrik
  • Jan Schultz
  • Gregory Sonnier
  • Donald M. Waller
  • Gian-Reto Walther
  • Peter S. White
  • Kerry D. Woods
  • Monika Wulf
  • Bente Jessen Graae
  • Kris Verheyen


Original languageEnglish
JournalProceedings of the National Acadamy of Sciences
Issue number46
Pages (from-to)18561-18565
Number of pages5
Publication statusPublished - 12-Nov-2013


Recent global warming is acting across marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems to favor species adapted to warmer conditions and/or reduce the abundance of cold-adapted organisms (i.e., ``thermophilization'' of communities). Lack of community responses to increased temperature, however, has also been reported for several taxa and regions, suggesting that ``climatic lags'' may be frequent. Here we show that microclimatic effects brought about by forest canopy closure can buffer biotic responses to macroclimate warming, thus explaining an apparent climatic lag. Using data from 1,409 vegetation plots in European and North American temperate forests, each surveyed at least twice over an interval of 12-67 y, we document significant thermophilization of ground-layer plant communities. These changes reflect concurrent declines in species adapted to cooler conditions and increases in species adapted to warmer conditions. However, thermophilization, particularly the increase of warm-adapted species, is attenuated in forests whose canopies have become denser, probably reflecting cooler growing-season ground temperatures via increased shading. As standing stocks of trees have increased in many temperate forests in recent decades, local microclimatic effects may commonly be moderating the impacts of macroclimate warming on forest understories. Conversely, increases in harvesting woody biomass-e.g., for bioenergy-may open forest canopies and accelerate thermophilization of temperate forest biodiversity.

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